HISTORY, PART ONE
This page covers the history of Lendosa from the first emergence of civilization until the end of the Regnosian Empire.
Before 3750 BP
Before around 4000 BP, little is conclusively known about the lands which now form the Lendosan Confederation. Most of our records from this time come from Rioch, the oldest civilization known to exist in the islands. Rioch claims to have been a unified state since around 6800 AP, and although many historians are dubious about this claim, it does appear from archaeological evidence that Rioch is the oldest centre of culture in Lendosa.
After the nation of Rioch, the oldest civilization in Lendosa was the Empire of Kunn. It was located along the west coast of Lendia, in the modern region of Melhoria and in the Zartanian enclave of Kunn Fedoron. It was a civilization rich in culture, and fairly advanced for its age, but we know little about it. The Kunn people seem to have kept few written records (despite apparently having knowledge of writing), and the barbarians who destroyed Kunn were thourough in their efforts. As a result, incredibly little survivies of the Kunn people.
At an undetermined date some time after the establishment of the Kunn Empire, another nation was formed, this time in Piolsa. It was known to the Regnosians as Aystir, but whether this was the name it used itself is unknown. This nation was situated in the southeastern corner of Lendosa, and is believed to have been established by Kenkaric peoples closely related to the inhabitants of Melga and Lok. As with the Kunn, however, little is known for certain about them. The majority of our information comes from the Regnosian Empire, established later, and its accuracy cannot be confirmed. They left little trace of themselves, mainly due to the fact that all their buildings and constructions seemed to be made out of wood rather than stone, meaning that it has long since deteriorated. The single exception to this rule is their great monoliths and the stone circles that they constructed, probably for astronomical use. Most Regnosian works on the Aystirians are on political matters rather than cultural, and tell us that Aystir was essentially a federation of highly independent tribes, usually acting individually rather than as a group.
The next civilization to rise in Lendosa was the great nation of Regnos. The Regnosians established themselves in northwestern Piolhosa, spreading along the northern coast and westward up to the Lavaia Islands. Regnos was a highly developed culture with very strong traditions and a complex social code, and before long was the most technologically advanced culture within the bounds of modern Lendosa. Of the ancient Lendosan civilizations, the Regnosians are the ones whom modern scholars know most about, primarily due to the plentiful written records they kept.
At some indeterminate date after the establishment of the main powers of the region, the northeastern regions of the Kunn Empire, also the least developed, appear to have broken away from the main state and formed the nation of Cahno. As with Kunn itself, little is known of Cahno. According to Regnosian sources (who may simply have been speculating), Cahno explicitly rejected the urbanisation and the political centralisation of the Kunn, returning to the more tribal system that existed before the Kunn conquest.
3750 BP - 3500 BP
In about 3750 BP, the Kunn Empire came under heavy assault from barbarian forces, and was forced to withdraw completly from its southern territories. It also abandoned the Khor Islands in order to return troops to the mainland. The Kunn state was severely weakened, and its military capability was heavily reduced. From this point, the Kunn Empire entered into a state of decline.
Shortly after the withdrawal of Kunn from its southern provinces, a new nation was established in Lendia. The Savadom (Kingdom) of Paspalhis, founded upon the banks of the Paspal river, soon grew to control most of the valley. It appears to have borrowed heavily from the Kunn in terms of technology, but apparently retained its own culture and social structure while doing so. Some historians regard Paspalhis as the successor of Kunn. The Paspalhites soon became the most powerful country in Lendia. While the the Savadom of Paspalhis was not physically large, the Paspal river ensured excellent crops, and the population of Paspalhis was larger than that of any other nation. Surep, the Paspalhite capital and the seat of the Sava (the Paspalhite king), had at least twice the population of any other city in Lendosa.
Some two hundred years after the foundation of Paspalhis, another state was established in Lendia. The so-called Principality of Lolth was founded by the Lolthi tribe. The Lolthi had originally inhabited a region in western Neoliliana, but were forced to flee across the strait to Lendia after being attacked by the Auranni. Lolth was established as a state in imitation of the great states already present in Lendia, but soon collapsed back into what was little more than a glorified pirate kingdom. It nevertheless established a powerful fleet, both military (essentially piratical) and commercial.
In around 3550 BP, colonists from the Regnosian Empire, which had still been expanding, settled in southern Lendia. These colonies came in two groups - a western group, near Paspalhis, and an eastern group, separated by an expanse of tribal wilderness. These colonies, having been established independently, were not Regnosian territory, and did not recognise the Regnosian Emperor. In 3543 BP, Paspalhis invaded and conquered the colonies closest to its borders, leaving only the city now known as Belvida, which agreed to pay tribute to Paspalhis. In 3505 BP, however, the leader of Belvida devised a complex scheme to conquer the eastern Regnosian colonies, still independent, using the armies of the Paspalhite governor nearby, who was hungry for glory and soon agreed. The two hoped to move without the Sava's approval but then present him with a whole new province, at the same time enriching themselves. However, the expedition was a disasterous failure, and the Paspalhite army was destroyed. When the Sava learned of this venture, he was furious, and executed the governor. The leader of Belvida, in a desperate attempt to save himself, instigated a large-scale rebellion among the conquered Regnosian colonies, hoping that if it succedded, he would be safe from the Sava's wrath.
In this venture, the aid of several Regnosian Houses were enlisted, on the grounds of supporting ethnic Regnosians against aggression. The rebellion failed, but not before it had generated much antagonism between Paspalhis and the Houses which had gone to assist their brethren.
It was for this reason that when Paspalhis launched a full-scale attack on the remaining Regnosian colonies in Lendia, which the Sava blamed along with Belvida for the loss of a good part of his armies, those Houses and their allies prepared to fight. The Paspalhite Wars had begun.
3500 BP - 3300 BP
In 3497 BP, the Paspalhites launched a large invasion of the Regnosian coast, drawing upon the assistance of the Lolthian fleet, which had been hired by the vast riches held by the Sava of Paspalhis. The attack began sucessfully, but after a loss was suffered in the Battle of Teleman (a town in Ranha), and the Seige of Acsatana was a failure, Regnosian forces managed to repel the invaders. Less than a few months after the final expulsion of the Paspalhites from mainland territories, an alliance of Regnosian Houses began a campaign to take the war back to Paspalhis. Launching an invasion fleet in 3495 BP, the Regnosians were assisted by the beginning of a rebellion among the Regnosian colonists of the area who had been conquered by Paspalhis. Establishing a firm hold on that area, Regnos began an assault upon the Paspalhite heartland. The following year, Surep, the Paspalhite capital, was captured by the Regnosian forces, and the Sava deposed. Also absorbed into the Regnosian Empire were the various Regnosian colonies which had been the initial cause of the wars.
A year later, the Regnosians turned their attention to the Lolthians, who had assisted the Paspalhites, and won the Battle of Limana Pass, crossing the hills and entering the Lolthian Plain. Encountering no further resistance once they reached Lolth itself, the Regnosians captured the city of Brancassa and established Lolth as another dominion of the Regnosian Empire.
Some half-century after this, what little remained of the once great Kunn Empire was overwhelmed by a fresh onslaught of barbarians from central Lendia. One year after the fall of the capital, one of the more developed barbarian tribes established what it called the Kingdom of New Kunn, which was intended to be a civilization on the order of the old Kunn Empire. This attempt to emulate the higher culture of the Kunn was a failure, however, and the barbarians quickly fell into open feuds. The so-called King became little more than a glorified warlord, initially residing in the burnt-out shell of one of Kunn'oth's twin palaces before relocating to the port of Chaba.
A year after New Kunn was proclaimed, the former governor of the Kunn territories in the Rabel Islands managed to form a united state there once more, forging a personal dominion with what remained of the Kunn garrison. What little resistance the Rabeli nationalists could offer was no match for the former Kunn troops, and the Kingdom of Rabel was proclaimed with the former Kunn governor as monarch. The Kingdom of Rabel actually did a better job of preserving Kunn culture than the so-called Kingdom of New Kunn did, for a time, although its second king (who was half Rabeli) was much less enthusiastic about Kunn culture than his father.
3300 BP - 3000 BP
In 3347 BP, one of the more mysterious events in Lendosan hitsory occurred when the ruler of Rioch ordered a massive invasion of the northern coast of Lendia. The reasons for this invasion are unknown, as Rioch has at no other point in its history sought territorial enlargement. No attempt to "civilize", convert, or influence the local people was made, and no colonization took place. It remains one of the greatest unexplained events in the history of the Lendosan isles. The presence of Riochan forces on the mainland, however, did result in a certain amount of technology adopted by local tribes.
In the south, Regnos was also expanding, by means of both conquest and settlement. Expanding its frontiers into the Piolhosan interior, Regnos began to move away from being a coastal civilization to a true empire, but it retained its newfound dominance at sea quite jealously, using its naval power to strengthen its hold on the southern Lendian coast.
At the same time as Regnos was undertaking its expansion, two states in northwest Lendia disappeared. In 3211 BP, the so-called Kingdom of New Kunn collapsed completely through a combination of internal disputes and external threats. Later, in 3190 BP, the state of Cahno collapsed, probably due to the onset of a plague in combination with attacks by the same peoples that played a role in New Kunn's fall. Shortly after the fall of Cahno, its coastal territories were occupied by the Riochans.
In 3165 BP, the Kingdom of Rabel was overthrown by an uprising of the native population, removing the Kunn dynasty which had been ruling the islands for 284 years. This government was replaced by a loose alliance (referred to in modern times as "the Federation") based around tribal groups. Village chiefs resumed their traditional rulership over their own islands, and came together in a sort of council to deliberate the few matters relating only to Rabel as a whole. In 3133 BP, small groups from Rabeli began to settle on the northwestern tip of Lendia.
In response to the expansion of Regnos in the south and the similar growth of Rioch in the north, various tribes of Lendia became concerned about their independence and survival. The people most concerned were the Xoxinans, the people who inhabited the hills directly between Regnos and the Riochans. The Xoxinans were understandably worried that their people would be caught in a territorial conflict between the two great powers of Lendia at the time, and so began to look for a way to protect themselves. In 3089 BP, a federation of tribes was created, forming a Kingdom of Xoxina. The first ruler of the state was a queen known to historians as Achaexa, a chief's daughter who had traveled extensively in Regnos and knew about their tactics and technology. This state covered almost all Xoxinan tribes, and was a strong enough state that Regnos was willing to recognise its independence and sovereignty.
3000 BP - 2750 BP
The first territorial expansion of Regnos in this period occured when a treaty was negotiated between the Regnosian Empire and the Kingdom of Xoxina. Xoxina, which had fallen into political turmoil with the death of Queen Achaexa, its founder, had only recently been reunited under a strong leader, but conflict threatened to break out once again. In an attempt to halt this conflict, which the Xoxinan leadership thought might mean the end of the Xoxinan cultural identity should it cause the Kingdom to collapse, the Xoxinans attempted to work out a compromise. Deciding that Xoxina's absorbtion by Regnos was inevitable, they chose to attempt to preserve Xoxina within Regnos. The treaty signed stuipulated that the Xoxinan leadership would form the basis for a new Regnosian House, which would give it the same autonomy from the the Emperor that other Houses enjoyed. This would prevent Xoxina from simply becoming an imperial province, like many other conquered regions. The treaty also stipulated that Regnos would be obliged to protect and shelter Xoxinan culture, with no attempts at conversion or colonisation. This treaty was largely respected, and Xoxina was integrated into Regnos.
In 2846 BP, Rioch began to expand slightly in the northwest, establishing a definite border between its own territories and the Commonwealth of Rabel. This involved fairly extensive contact between the government of the two nations, resulting in a non-aggression pact being signed. A similar pact was signed between Rioch and Regnos when the two met in order to formalize the already existing border between the two.
With increased Regnosian influence in the region, the various tribes that were inhabiting the former Kunn dominions on the western Lendian coast became more and more developed over time, and began to move towards a more sedentary (rather than nomadic) lifestyle. This, in combination with the non-aggression pacts signed by Rioch and its neighbours, meant that Lendia was essentially at peace.
This did not, however, apply in any way to Piolsa. In 2792 BP, the Regnosians launched a large-scale military campaign to conquer the tribes of central Piolsa, which had been raids on Regnos for some time, severely harming development and trade in the Empire's interior. In a two-branched attack, the Regnosians swept simultaneously down the Tiris River in central Piolhosa and along the southern Piolsan coast, continuing until they reached the borders of Aystir (which had been fluxuating recently due to the same tribal raids). While insurrections continued in the area for some centuries, the Regnosians were able to persevere, and gradually the area became more and more Regnosian. Only in Katanai, in the north, did the Regnosians not attempt to alter the native cultures, as the Katanai tribes had been allied to the Regnosians in the past and were regarded as honourable.
This expansion brought the Regnosians and Aystirians into close contact for the first time. While the two had fought before, it was only in a small area, and there had rarely been any significant border between the two states. Aystir, which felt threatened by the rapid Regnosian expansion into what had once served as a buffer zone, began to militarize itself. This, in turn, caused Regnos to increase the number of troops it had in the border areas. Before long, Regnos and Aystir were openly hostile towards each other, although not in direct conflict.
2750 BP - 2500 BP
In 2746 BP, the ruler of Rioch ordered a complete withdrawal of Riochan forces from mainland Lendia. The reasons for this withdrawal, just like the reasons for the original invasion, are not known. Many scholars hypothesize that there was a shift in power in Rioch at the time, although Rioch's own records claim (implausibly) that the islands have never experienced any political disturbance of any form. When Rioch departed, they signed a treaty with Regnos the future of their lands. Under the arrangement reached, Regnos would assume rulership of Rioch's mainland territories in exchange for a pledge never to enter into armed conflict with Rioch itself. Regnos agreed, and founded the city of Karaminos as an administrative centre for its new lands.
In 2739 BP, tensions between Regnos and Aystir broke out into full-scale war. The numerically and technologically superior Regnosians gained the upper hand, and began to press into Aystirian territory, making significant gains. This advance continued for some years, stopping only after Regnos controlled a significant amount Aystirian land.
Beginning in about 2738 BP, the government of Rabel began to increase its rate of colonization in the mainland. Accompanying this settlement was a significant increase in military presence in the region, primarily to guard against barbarian raids on the new settlements. Regnos, however, was wary of the Rabeli motives, and began to increase its military presence in its own territories, fearing that the Rabelis were attempting to overturn Regnosian naval dominance in the Rivanian Sea to the north.
Despite increasing the number of troops stationed in Lendia, the Regnosian Empire was still powerful enough to renew its halted offensive against the Aystirians in 2715 BP. This met with success in 2713 BP, when Regnosian forces broke through Aystirian positions and arrived on the northern coast at the mouth of the river Videc. This, besides cutting a substantial amount of Aystirian territory from the heartland, marked the first real incursion by Regnos into central Aystirian territories, rather than merely outer provinces, and is regarded by most historians to mark the beginning of the end for Aystir.
In 2690 BP, the Kingdom of Khor was created. Located in the Khor islands to the west of Lendia, Khor was an absolute monarchy, and was less developed than most countries, but developed into a significant trading nation in the west during its lifespan.
With the expansion of Regnos into the declining Aystir, and with the accelerated growth of population, culture, and technology within the Regnosian Empire as a whole, Regnos was well and truely becoming the only power of significance in Lendosa.
2500 BP - 2250 BP
In northwestern Lendia, tensions between Regnos and Rabel were growing, mainly as a result of military buildups by both sides. In 2402 BP, the leaders of Rabel made an official edict encouraging colonisation to the south, in tribal-held lands - this was aimed mainly at preventing Regnos from conquering the territory, encircling Rabel. The growing Rabeli presence, however, created nervousness in various tribes of the area, particularly a group called the Ikha.
In 2371 BP, the Ikha were united under a single strong leader, known to us as Korosan. This leader began a massive military buildup, gathering cavalry and mounted archers from the areas under his control and staging periodic attacks on neighbouring peoples. In 2369 BP, Korosan's forces staged a raid on Rabel's mainland territories, doing considerable damage before fleeing into the wilderness again. Small-scale raids by the Ikha continued for years, but eventually Korosan, now elderly, decided that the Regnosian Empire offered better prospects for wealth. In the year 2353 BP, Korosan launched in invasion of a quiet region of Regnos called Tarin. The destruction was vast, and thousands of citizens were killed. Systematic programs of rape and looting were established, and anything of value was immediately taken to add to Korosan's personal treasure heap. The Ikha did not attempt to conquer, merely to rob and destroy.
The Regnosian Empire was furious, and immediately gathered all available forces. Bringing in whatever troops it could find, a massive Regnosian army arrived in Tarin at the beginning of the following year, just a month after the invasion. Attacking the Ikha without warning, the numerically, technologically, and tactically superior Regnosian forces crushed the Ikha completely. All survivors were executed. Troops were simply hanged, but nobles and officers were tied to stakes positioned along the Regnosian border with Ikha lands, one every mile, and left to die of thirst, hunger, and exposure, with their corpses remaining there permanantly as a warning to others. Korosan himself was slowly tortured to death in the Regnosian capital.
The impact of the Ikha invasion, however, was much greater. Deciding that it was simply "too dangerous" to leave parts of Lendia "uncivilised", the Regnosians made it an official policy to unite the entirity of modern Lendosa under their direct rule. In 2316 BP, the Regnosians launched an invasion of Ikha lands themselves, defeating the various warlords that had established themselves after Korosan's defeat. With the aim of "permanently removing the prospect of another Korosan arising", the Regnosians forced the generally nomadic Ikha into purpose-built cities. While they were able to maintain much of their culture, other "warlike" and "uncivilised" cultural traits were systematically targeted and suppressed.
Later, in 2299 BP, Regnos renewed its attack on Aystir, believing that the political chaos caused by their previous attacks "opened the way for a collapse into barbarism", and thus Korosan-esque attacks. What remained of the Aystirian defences were shattered, and Regnos made significant gains. From this point, the conquest of Aystir was little more than a formality, although the final subjugation was dragged out over a considerable length of time.
2250 BP - 2100 BP
By 2244 BP, the Regnosians had gained complete control of Piolsa, with the few remaining pockets of Aystirian civilization finally being conquered and integrated into the Regnosian Empire. This allowed the Regnosians to turn all their attention to Lendia, and the increasing military tension between Regnos and Rabel.
Before dealing with Rabel, however, Regnos approached the Kingdom of Khor, which had recently suffered a disastrous civil war. Khor was essentially offered a choice of accepting annexation to Regnos under the same terms that Xoxina had accepted in 2906 BP, or forcible annexation. Khor chose not to resist, and the treaty was finalised in 2209 BP.
By the time the Regnosians turned to Rabel, the islands were under the control of a leader known to modern historians as Ikimi. Ikimi had come to power in a coup d'état in 2219 BP, and appears to have been highly mentally unbalanced. The Rabeli state was significantly weakened under his rule, and much resentment towards his leadership developed. In the year 2202 BP, Ikimi attacked a small Regnosian border outpost, apparently without any specific reason. There had been no preparation or planning made either for the attack or for the inevitable war afterwards. Regnos, although it had planned to wait before confronting Rabel, declared the attack to be an act of war, and full-scale fighting began between the two nations. In 2197 BP, the Rabeli capital was captured, and it did not take long for Regnos to secure control of the various minor islands. Ikimi had been deposed and ritually drowned by his own forces several months before the Regnosians declared victory.
Regnos now controlled all of modern Lendosa except for the islands of Rioch. In 2130 BP, however, a momentous event occured, although it was considered relatively unimportant at the time - a convoy of three ships flying the flag of the Kingdom of Alembida, a nation located in what is now southern Estontetso, arrived off the coast of Piolsa. Rather than trading, the Alembidans landed with the intent of establishing a settlement there. The Regnosian governor of the region treated the new arrivals as immigrants rather than invaders, and allowed the colonists to found the city of New Alembida (Novalambidicum), which soon grew and prospered.
Only a short while later, however, the Regnosian Empire was plunged into civil war. Following the death of the Emperor, a dispute over succession emerged, and rather than have the matter referred to independent arbitration, as was traditional, both claimants chose to fight for the throne. The various Regnosian Houses positioned themselves behind one or other of the combatants, and full-scale civil war soon emerged. Due to the nature of the House alliances, no claimant had dominance in any particular region, meaning that fighting spread across the entire Empire. Regnosian control over the outer regions of their empire began to crumble, with Houses withdrawing their forces to assist in the civil war and leaving the conquered areas of the empire with only small garrisons.
This vast civil war would be the setting for the end of the ancient era. As more and more people from Longerath became interested in seeking a new life, the number of colonists increased, and the Regnosians were unable to prevent the creation of independent states out of former Regnosian lands. While Regnos would survive for a time, it would never recover, and would eventually give way to the new kingdoms established by the colonists.
Continued in Part Two.