HISTORY, PART TWO
This page covers the history of Lendosa from the fall of the Regnosian Empire until the War of the Stars.
2100 BP - 2000 BP
The Regnosian Empire was in a state of collapse, racked by civil war. Much of its territory, while still officially part of the Empire, was lawless, and central control existed only over certain areas in the west. Two Regnosian cities, Meigan and Ladoris, declared independence - the central Regnosian government, such as it was, was unable to stop them. Other cities were simply cut loose, with troops being recalled to the western provinces.
In 2098 BP, there was a major influx of colonists, mostly from the Kingdom of Alembida (located in the south of modern Estontetso). It was the Alembidans who had first arrived in Lendosa from the mainland, and who had founded the first colony. The Alembidans, taking advantage of the collapse of Regnosian dominion over the east, settled mostly in northeast Piolsa.
In 2089 BP, another nation entered the scene. This was the Kingdom of Micholerdia, another Estontetsan state. Micholerdia had no direct access to the western seas, and so embarked upon its colonisation through Alembidan ports, paying a substantial fee to the Alembidan monarchy for this usage. It established its first colony in Lendosa in 2089 BP on the eastern Piolsan coast, between the Alembidan settlements and the independent city of Meigan. Three years later, the Micholerdians established the first Longerathian colony in Lendia. In 2080 BP, Micholerdian militia marched into the former Regnosian provincial centre of Brancassa, which had collapsed into anarchy and looting after Regnosian troops withdrew and the governor was killed by a mob. The Micholerdians were largely welcomed as restorers of order.
In 2047 BP, the Micholerdian colonies in Lendosa began to call for autonomy or outright independence, beginning with the Lendian colonies and with the Piolsan ones following suit shortly afterwards. Several disorganised declarations of independence were made. None of these demands were recognised by Micholerdia, but wars back in Longerath prevented any direct action from being taken until 2037 BP, when the new Micholerdian monarch, Aratacius (or Arro-Take), sent an expedition to the colonies to reassert control.
While the declartions of independence did not amount to anything, the suppression of them proved to be consequential. The active deployment of troops in nominal Regnosian territory by a foreign power concerned both sides of the Regnosian Civil War, and hostilities were set aside to allow the expulsion this force. The Regnosian military was depleted, however, and Micholerdian forces possessed superior technology - as such, the Regnosians signed an alliance with the Kingdom of Alembida, which, due to affairs on the mainland, was now steadily moving into opposition with Micholerdia. According to the treaty, the Regnos and Alembida would cooperate with each other to expel the Micholerdians. In exchange for direct Alembidan action, Alembida would be granted permanant rights of settlement (but not sovereignty) in the eastern thirds of both Lendia and Piolsa, on the condition that Alembida did not station large numbers of troops there.
In 2034 BP, Regnosian and Alembidan forces launched attacks on Micholerdian colonies in both Lendia and Piolsa. The attack in Lendia, while causing large amounts of damage, was eventually repulsed, but Micholerdian forces in Piolsa were completely overrun. Alembida immediately assumed control of all Micholerdian holdings in Piolsa. The heavy damage to Micholerdian power in Lendia also caused the colonies there to drift towards independence once again.
This weakness on the part of Micholerdia was not to last, however. As Aratacius completed his wars in mainland Longerath, conquering the neighbouring Kingdoms of Peganhosa and Burburreica, Micholerdia increased in power, eventually gaining supremacy over its area. In 2000 BP, he officially dissolved the Kingdom of Micholerdia and replaced it with the Liliani Empire, a new and imperialist realm.
2000 BP - 1900 BP
In 2000 BP, the king of Micholerdia declared the foundation of the new Liliani Empire, with himself as the first Emperor. Shortly afterwards, there was a renewed drive for expansion, with the Liliani (formerly Micholerdian) colonies in Lendia experiencing a considerable increase in immigration. Alembida, meanwhile, expanded its holdings in Piolsa, moving into the interior. It also signed a border and trade treaty with the city-state of Meigan, which opened itself to Alembidan cultural influence.
In 1982 BP, the Regnosians withdrew the last of their forces from their eastern territories, with the troops being required in the ongoing civil war. Most of the east was already anarchic, with no Regnosian control being exercised at all, but the withdrawal of troops was the final blow to any claim of Regnosian rule. The cities of Kailon, Jalam, and Colzia, the only real centres of law and order in eastern Piolsa, were left without the means to maintain order or even to fight of marauding bandits. The cities' governors, seeing their vulnerability, were forced to sign a treaty with the Alembidans, placing the cities under Alembidan protection.
Meanwhile, Liliani settlement in Lendia was still expanding. In 1972 BP, Liliani forces reached the border of Ladoris, a former Regnosian city which had declared independence in 2095 BP. Small-scale military confrontations occurred between Liliani and Ladorine troops - Liliana had officially claimed the entire northern coast of Lendia as its sovereign territory, and when it became clear that Ladoris had no intention of placing itself under foreign protection, tensions became high. No serious attacks were mounted by either side, but the Ladorine ruling body, the Council of Ten and One, launched a program of covert support for secessionist elements in the Liliani colonies.
At the same time, events were moving rapidly on the Longerathian mainland, where conflict between Liliana and Alembida was escalating. Finally, in 1951 BP, Liliana subdued Alembida. The Alembidan colonies in Piolsa, however, were not prepared to accept Liliani rule, and instead declared themselves independent. The core territories, around the colonial capital of New Alembida, formed themselves into the Duchy of Anton, while the southern city of Valarium established its own Duchy of Valar. The former Regnosian cities of Kailon (now Cailona), Jalam, and Colzia, now dominated by Alembidan colonists rather than Regnosians, established the Duchy of Caeruleus.
The following year, successionists in the Liliani colonies of Lendia made a concerted push for independence, encouraged by the independence of the Alembidan colonies and assisted by the government of Ladoris. As with the Alembidan colonies, the Liliani territories were divided into three states. The Duchy of Lolthia (named after the old Principality of Lolth) was based around the colonial capital of Brancassa, while the Ducy of Beltera ("beautiful land") and the Duchy of Bairia occupied the north and south, respectively. The three duchies, while governed independently, maintained a strong defensive alliance against possible Liliani attack. Liliana, however, considered the colonies to be wholely unimportant, and was more interested in pursuing its goals on continental Longerath - no attempt to regain control of the rebellious territories was made, although Liliana never recognised the declaration of independence as valid.
1900 BP - 1800 BP
With Liliana making no real attempt to regain control of its colonies, the newly independent duchies in Lendia relaxed somewhat, and turned their attention to matters of commerce and expansion. Despite the declaration of independence, immigrants from Liliana were still welcomed, and the population of the duchies increased. The duchies did not completely neglect their defence, however - in 1848 BP, they signed a border and defence treaty with the city-state of Ladoris, helping to bolster their strength against a possible Liliani attack. No such attack came, however.
In Piolsa, the duchies were also looking towards expansion and development. The Duchy of Caerulius was particularly interested in expansion, sending explorers and settlers up the Videc valley in 1830 BP. The Duchy of Valar also completed the conquest of the Kha Islands, managing to establish a semblence of authority over the hostile Kha tribes. The campaign in the islands was extremely costly, and gained the Duchy little in the way of wealth or resources, and so raised much political discontent - Valar would remain somewhat unstable for the next ten years.
1800 BP - 1700 BP
With fresh colonists still arriving and a significant amount of internal population growth occuring, settlement in Lendosa become both denser and more widespread. Particular areas of settlement were Neonia (on Lendia's southern coast), the Videc River valley (in Piolsa's interior), and the Sargon area (on Piolsa's southern coast).
In Neonia, settlers travelled along the coast from Bairia or overland from Lolthia, with both those nations expanding as settlement increased. The furthest of the colonies, unattached to either country, was eventually united as the Duchy of Neonia. Neonia had a difficult start, quickly entering into boundary disputes with both Bairia and Lolthia.
In Videc, colonisation of the river valley under the Duchy of Caerulius had been continuing for some time, although Caerulian control over the area was weak. Attacks by Katanai tribes in north-central Piolsa presented a significant problem, but the Caerulian government in Cailona was uninterested in the expense and difficulty of mounting a reasonable defence. The city of Colzia, to which the upriver colonies had been attached, grew increasingly frustrated with the authorities in Cailona, and eventually, in 1774 BP, it declared the formation of a new Duchy of Videc. A few small clashes occurred between Videc and Caerulius, but for the most part, Caerulius was not particularly concerned about the loss of Colzia and the new settlements.
In Sargon, colonists had been gradually arriving from Anton and Valar, but without any official sanction. In 1785 BP, the town of Sargon was founded, and quickly became the largest urban centre in the newly colonised area. Somewhat later, when it was rumoured that the Duchy of Anton was planning to declare the area sovereign Antonine territory, the mayor of Sargon declared the entire territory to be the Duchy of Sargon, an independent state. While many settlements did not actually accept this declaration for some years, it was apparently enough to forestall any Antonine claims, if indeed any had really been planned.
Settlement did not stop with Neonia, Videc, and Sargon, however - more colonists continued to cross the frontiers, seeking better lives (and possibly fewer laws and restrictions). In Piolsa, colonists continued to move along the southern coast, but expansion along the northern coast was hampered by hostile Katanai tribes. In Lendia, colonists moved inland to the mountains of Xoxina, and also took ship to pass Ladoris and settle the northern Lendian coast.
1700 BP - 1600 BP
With colonisation continuing in both Lendia and Piolsa, several new states were founded. In central Lendia, the city of Ascana had been steadily filling with new immigrants, turning the original inhabitants into a minority. Other settlements were also established. In 1676 BP, Ascana and the newer settlements banded together to form the Duchy of Xoxina, although there was little central control over the territory - the Duchy's primary purpose, many believe, was to prevent claims by Lolthia, Neonia, or Beltera. In the north, settlement along the coast resulted in the foundation of Frezone, later to become a major trading port. Frezone became the centre of the Duchy of Frezonia. In Piolsa, settlement along the southern coast resulted in the creation of the Duchy of Tennebria in 1638 BP. Later, colonists travelled even further, with the city of Rezimano being founded on the Rezimana River. Rezimano also declared itself to be an independent Duchy, claiming all lands between itself and Tennebria. Inland, the Duchy of Videc continued to expand up the Videc River valley. The increase colonisation led to further contacts with the Katanai tribes, and in 1607 BP, the first peaceful trade agreement was reached.
Meanwhile, the Regnosian Empire had been declining further. Regnosian territories in Lendia had not truly been under the control of Tesion for some time, but in 1664 BP, any semblence of Regnosian authority was finally lost when the governor of Surep and the governor of Morola launched a devastating war against each other. Both cities were eventually destroyed in the fighting, and all the area became lawless and anarchic. The only other area of Regnosian control in Lendia, the city of Sciona and its surrounds, eventually declared independence in name as well as in fact, describing itself as a sovereign principality.
In 1604 BP, the Duke of Anton died, and his son, rather than take the title of Duke, declared himself to be a King. The rulers of Caerulius and Valar, unwilling to be "outranked" by Anton, declared themselves to be kings shortly afterwards. The following year, two Lendian states followed suit, with Lolthia and Neonia becoming kingdoms. Frezonia, while not making itself a kingdom, made itself a principality.
1600 BP - 1500 BP
Settlement and colonisation continued. In Piolsa, Rezimano expanded slightly westward, and a war between Videc and the Katanai tribes resulted in a major expansion of Videc to the north. In Lendia, the two coastal "border states", Neonia and Frezonia, both expanded inland and along their respective coasts, with Neonia moving into lands that were recently held by the Regnosians.
There were also some noteworthy territorial realignments between existing states. In 1580 BP, a war was fought between the kingdoms of Anton and Valar, with the cause being a supposed insult of the King of Valar's wife by the King of Anton. The war resulted in the city of Tudalan, controlled by Anton, being captured by Valar. In Lendia, a minor border war saw Lolthia capture a small amount of Xoxinan territory. In addition, an expansionist Duke of Beltera declared an intent to annex the independent city-state of Ladoris, which he declared to be rightfully Belteran territory. The exact reasoning behind this claim is not quite understood, and was probably spurious - Ladoris was often said (possibly without cause) to possess considerable wealth, and the Duke of Beltera at the time was known for his greed. Ladoris sought the assistance of Frezonia, a rising power, to defend against any Belteran attack, and eventually accepted a treaty where Ladoris would become an autonomous city within Frezonia.
Regnos, meanwhile, was in a state of complete collapse. Open warfare between different factions of the imperial family escalated until one prominent general, seeking to end the conflict, seized control of the capital, Tesion. The general immediately executed anyone with any proven blood link to the imperial family, believing that this was the only way to end the fighting. The general then declared himself to be the interim ruler of Regnos, and moved the capital to the city of Segloso. Not all of Regnos accepted his decision, however - the city of Imbrentra was seized by a distant branch of the imperial family who had escaped the general's purge, while the city of Chaura took the opportunity to declare its independence. Both Selogo and Imbrentra claimed to the the "true" Regnos, with the general claiming that he was now ruler of all Regnosian territory and the rulers of Imbrentra claiming to be the legitimate heirs to the Regnosian throne. War broke out, and lasted for some time.
1500 BP - 1400 BP
Gradually, settlement continued to expand, and by 1400 BP, there was no part of mainland Lendia or Piolsa not officially claimed by one nation or another. In Lendia, major expansions were launched by Neonia and Frezonia, which became the two largest (if not the most populous) countries on the island. The expansion of Frezonia resulted in the mountains of western Lendia being opened for colonisation - in 1443 BP, the Duchy of Recuna was foundded, and in 1450 BP, the Duchy of Pula was founded. Recuna later expanded southward, meeting Neonia's new expansions along the coast. The rapid settlement of the west prompted the Principality of Sciona, a remnant of the Regnosian era, to lay claim to all remaining land in northwestern Lendia - in the past, Sciona had considered itself isolated from other states, but now feared that there would be enemies within striking distance of its heartland. In Piolsa, settlement also continued, with the Duchy of Ocassa being founded in 1444 BP, followed by the Duchy of Arcosta in 1410 BP. Another state, the Duchy of Catania, had been founded in 1491 BP - Videcian settlers in the Katanai territories, rejecting the rather harsh rule of the Duke of the time, allied with the Katanai and overthrew their Videcian governors, establishing an independent country based on equality of settlers and tribespeople.
In the remains of Regnos, conflict continued between Segloso and Imbrentra, with both claiming the name "Regnos". In 1438 BP, however, the general who had established Segloso died, and in 1439 BP, the Imbrentran noble who had declared himself Emperor also died. Their successors, believing that the war was pointless, signed a treaty in 1441 BP. Under this agreement, both nations renounced any claim to be the legitimate Regnosian Empire, and adopted the names "Segloso" and "Imbrentra" as their official designations. Both also abandoned their claims to Chaura, which had broken away from Regnos when the war started.
1400 BP - 1350 BP
With all territory on mainland Lendia and Piolsa claimed, all territorial changes now involved existing states. The 18th Century BP, for many historians, marks the beginning of "consolidation" - a reduction in the number of independent states, as countries were either annexed or merged to form larger units.
The first change began in 1695 BP, when the Duchy of Catania found itself at war with Videc (now calling itself a Kingdom rather than a Duchy) and Arcosta. Videc's desire to "reclaim" Catania (a former Videcian territory) was strong, but Catania was unlikely to fall to Videc alone. For this reason, Videc formed an alliance with Arcosta, which had been involved in a major trade dispute with Catania. Catania did not last long against the joint Videcian-Arcostan invasion, and was partitioned between the two countries - Videc annexed eastern Catania, while Arcosta annexed the western territories.
In 1691 BP, a more peaceful consolidation occurred, with the ruling Duchess of Tennebria marrying the heir to the throne of neighbouring Rezimano. As a result, Tennebria was integrated into Rezimano, with Rezimano upgrading itself from a Duchy to a Kingdom as a result.
Further east, a civil war emerged in the Kingdom of Anton between two rival claimants to the throne - the King had died without male heirs, andd both his younger brother and the husband of his daughter believed themselves to be the rightful ruler. The King of Valar, meanwhile, decided to take advantage of the chaos. Calling on his relation to the Antonine royal family (the result of an Antonine princess marrying into the Valaric royal family two generations previously), he presented his own claim to the throne, and invaded. While his claim was weak, his armies were easily a match for the divided Antonine forces, and in 1860 BP, he was able to have himself crowned King of Anton in the city of Vanisa. He immediately merged Anton into Valar.
In 1878 BP, the Duchy of Arcosta once again expanded its territory, annexing the small state of Imbrentra. Acosta and Imbrentra had been hostile towards each other for some time, mostly as a result of border disputes. The war was prompted, however, by a massacre of Arcostan immigrants by Imbrentran civilians. Immigration had been occuring for some time, and many in Imbrentra were angry at the large influx of foreigners - in particular, conservatives in Imbrentra were outraged at the growing influence of Arcostan culture at the expense of traditional Regnosian ways. The killing of the immigrants was not sactioned by the Imbrentran government, but many in Arcosta believed that Imbrentra was insufficiently apologetic - war broke out, and Imbrentra was quickly defeated. Within a few generations, most of Imbrentra's population was ethnically and culturally Arcostan.
The largest consolidation, however, began in 1859 BP, when the King of Lendia married the reigning Queen of Neonia. The marriage was entirely political, and aimed at establishing a single state which would dominate the whole of Lendia. For this reason, the new country was called the Kingdom of Lendia, although it initially occupied less than a third of the island. Soon, the Kingdom of Lendia began to expand - after a number of unreasonable demands were refused, it invaded and annexed the Duchy of Bairia, and then did the same to the Duchy of Xoxina. The threat of invasion was enough for the Duchy of Beltera to pledge "subordination". The Principality of Frezonia, however, was another matter - while its military was not as strong as tthat of the united Kingdom of Lendia, it was stronger than the perfunctory forces that Bairia, Xoxina, and Beltera had maintained. In 1852 BP, open warfare broke out between Lendia and Frezonia - it was soon dubbed the War of the Stars, since both countries had a star at the centre of their flags. Neither side gained any significant advantage, and the war dragged on.
Continued in Part Three.