The basic educational system in the Lendosan Confederation may be divided into three basic levels (primary, secondary, and tertiary). Other types of education are preschool (kindergarten) and vocational training. It is compulsory to attend primary and secondary school, but all others are optional. In general, students will spend nine years at primary school, five years at secondary school, and perhaps three years at university or vocational school.
Level Ages Institution Students Teachers Administrator Preschool 2-3 Jaradino (Kindergarten) Todamo Nanato Caratano Primary 4-13 Escola (School) Aluno Pedanto Reitoro Secondary 14-18 Colegio (College) Estudanteo Mestreo Pedagoga Tertiary 19+ Universidade (University) Bolseiro Profesoro Provosto Vocational 19+ Preceptoria (Preceptory) Escuta Instrutoro Preceptoro
There is no legal requirement for children in Lendosa to attend kindergarten, although about three quarters of parents do choose to enrol their children there. It is possible to enrol children in kindergarten at the beginning of the year that they turn two years old, but most parents wait until their child reaches the year in which they turn three years old. Assuming that children start in the year they turn three, they leave kindergarten after one year (the start of primary school).
All but a very few private kindergartens accept both male and female children. Most do not divide children into age groups for teaching, as the considerable majority of them will be of the same age (three). Children are generally brought to kindergarten by their parents. Kindergartens do not have uniforms.
Kindergartens are not a part of the national education apparatus run by the Confederate government. Rather, they are managed either by local authorities or by private interests. As such, the government has little part in formulating kindergarten policy. It does, however, provide certification for private kindergartens, ensuring that they are of satisfactory quality. Learning undertaken at an uncertified kindergarten will not be recognised by schools.
Kindergarten in intended to provide a basic program that encourages learning. It is designed to prepare children for entry to primary school, and provide a foundation upon which primary school can build. It should ensure that children are accustomed to a structured learning environment.
All children are required to attend primary school. It begins in the year a child turns four, although in some places, it is possible to substitute this first year with an additional year at kindergarten. Students remain at school for nine years (turning thirteen in their final year). School hours vary from place to place, but in most cases, classes start at 8am and finish at 4pm (a total of eight hours). Classes are held six days a week, starting on Monday and finishing on Saturday.
Almost all schools in Lendosa accept both male and female students. Within primary school, students are divided into year groups known as Socalcos (literally meaning "terraces"). There are nine terraces in primary school. These are numbered beginning from the first year (ie, 1st Terrace, 2nd Terrace, etc.), although the first and ninth terraces are sometimes referred to as the Initial Terrace and the Final Terrace, respectively. Students in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Terraces are regarded as being part of a "junior school", students in the 4th, 5th, and 6th Terraces are thought of as part of an "intermediate school", and students in the 7th, 8th, and 9th Terraces are considered to be part of a "senior school". Note, however, that these labels always refer to divisions within a single school - they are never found as independent institutions.
All primary schools have uniforms. The pattern of the uniform will be distinct to each area, while the colouring will be distinct to each school within that area. There will be minor modifications to indicate whether someone is a junior, intermediate, or senior student. In Lendia and Piolsa, uniforms for males and females are similar, with the only significant difference being that boys wear shorts while girls wear skirts. In the remainder of the Confederation, schools are split between using Lendian-style uniforms and uniforms based on local tradition.
Lendosan primary schools are all controlled the Confederate government, being placed under the direction of the Education Section. Actual administration of the schools, however, is conducted by lower-level authorities. In Lendia and Piolhosa, each Region will manage its own school system, with minor variations in practices between them. In Rioch, Rabel, Kha, and Ranha, the smaller members of the Confederation, schools are all managed by the national government of these states, and are often quite different to schools elsewhere.
For the most part, curriculum in primary schools is determined by the educational authorities for each area. There are, however, broad guidelines set down by the Education Section which schools are required to follow. For juniors, education is very general, and focuses mainly on literacy and basic mathematics. In the intermediate stages, students still learn reading, writing, and mathematics, but also begin to learn about other things as well (about Lendosa, about technology and the use of computers, and about basic science). In the four smaller Confederate member-states, where Lendian is not the dominant language, students begin to learn elementry Lendian at this time. Senior students add geography, history, politics, and a foreign language to their course of study (at primary school, options for foreign language are Ingallish and Westrian, although smaller schools might only offer one of these).
After leaving primary school (having obtained a certificate known as a Scintilla - see the Degrees page), students move on to college. Note that in Lendosa, the word "college" always refers to secondary school, and never to university as it can in some countries. College is compulsory for all students, and lasts five years - students should turn eighteen in their final year. Classes at college generally last the same amount of time as those of primary school, but usually begin and finish an hour earlier or later so as to lessen the strain on public transport.
Colleges in Lendosa may accept both males and females, but do not always. Around a third of colleges are either all-male or all-female (typically, these are older colleges that were established before joint education became common). The five year groups of college all have specific names attached to them, the origins of which are now unimportant (they were originally based on the curriculum studied in that year, but this meaning has been lost). The first year is Retemica, the second is Eruica, the third is Veravica, the fourth is Moralica, and the fifth is Avidica. These are often abbreviated by their first letters - R, E, V, M, and A (in some parts of the country, "revma" has actually become a slang word for secondary school).
All colleges have uniforms which students must wear. As with the uniforms for primary schools, the style of uniform is the same throughout each area, with the colours varying from school to school. There will be a slight modification of the uniform for students in the last two years (Moralica and Avidica). In Lendia and Piolhosa, the only significant difference between male and female versions is that males wear trousers and females wear skirts. Other parts of the Confederation usually (but not always) have uniforms based on traditional clothing.
Colleges in Lendosa are under the authority of the Confederate government's Education Section. As with primary schools, however, actual administration of the colleges is delegated to a lower level - the smaller members of the Confederation run their own colleges, while Regional governments are responsible for them in Lendia and Piolhosa. Colleges have more autonomy in administrative issues than primary schools do.
Curriculum at colleges is more standardised than at primary school, with all teaching conducted within a framework of nationally-declared subject areas. The government requires that all students study Lendian, Mathematics, Science, and Politics for at least three years, and schools sometimes place other requirements on students as well. In general, students gain more and more control over their course of study as they pass through college, and it is rare for there to be any compulsory subjects in a student's last year. Aside from Lendian, Mathematics, and Science, other popular subjects include Geography, History, Ingallish, Westrian, Neoliliani, Estontetsan, Economics, Art, Music, and Philosophy. Some subjects are divided into specialist areas in the last two years of college - Science, for example, is split into Physics, Chemistry, and Biology.
Students can begin university just after leaving secondary school, assuming they have received the Lumenario certificiate (see the Degrees page). University is not compulsory, although a significant number of Lendosans choose to attend. The stage at which people leave university again is variable, but the standard goal for most people is an Illustario (roughly equivalent to a Bachelor's degree - see the Degrees page). This requires, on average, three years of study. Others try for a High Illustario (four years), a Grand Illustario (five years), or even a Fulgorio (equivalent to a PhD, and taking about seven years).
All universities in Lendosa accept both male and female students. Unlike at primary or secondary school, they are not divided into year groups, although students who have gained a basic Illustario are considered to be different to those who have not (much like the difference between undergraduates and (post)graduates at other universities). Those who have gained the Illustario are called Sofanios.
All state universities (and almost all private universities) have a uniform. The nature of this uniform differs quite considerably between each university, with each one choosing a distinct pattern and colour. Usually, uniforms are the same for all students, but some universities (particularly older ones) distinguish between different levels of seniority and between different faculties.
Most universities in Lendosa are run by the Confederate government, although a number of private ones survive under government regulation. Unlike primary and secondary schools, administration of universities is not given to lower authorities - each university manages its own affairs and reports directly to the Education Section, although most will have some links to the local educational authorities as well.
Students are free to choose what subjects they study at university. On the whole, courses at university are largely determined by the universities themselves, although many subjects are standardised across all state universities. Different universities will often have different specialties, and smaller universities will not have the range of options that larger ones do.
Preceptories are the component of the Lendosan education system that deals with training in practice rather than theory. While universities are primarily aimed at imparting knowledge, preceptories focus on teaching skills. The range of things that can be studied at preceptories is wide - surgeons, pilots, electricians, nurses, plumbers, and chefs are all likely to have received their training at a preceptory (although some will also have attended universities to study the more theoretical elements of their craft). Students generally enter a preceptory directly after secondary school (instead of, or at the same time as, going to university). Many preceptories have arrangements with universities that allow students to easily undertake limited study at both institutions simultaneously. The number of years spent at a preceptory is greatly variable, and depends on what occupation a student is being trained for.
There are very few preceptories that do not accept both males and females. Students may or may not be divided into year groups as they are in primary or secondary school - this depends on what is being studied. If students are divided, the year groups are generally just referred to as "first year", "second year", and so forth. Whether or not a preceptory has a uniform depends on the focus of the institution. Those preceptories that do have uniforms generally model them on one found in the targeted profession.
Preceptories in Lendosa can be either state-owned or privately-owned. At present, the number of each is approximately equal. Private preceptories are subject to government regulation, although this is not as strict as the regulation of private universities. On the whole, preceptories are built around only one focus (medicine, aviation, cooking, etc), and there are very few that go beyond this. In the state sector, there is only one preceptory per subject, although these preceptories will have campuses throughout the country.