The Lendosan Confederation maintains a system of academic qualifications that differs from that used in other countries (for example, Lendosa does not issue anything called a Bachelor's Degree, or a PhD). Rather, it uses a system based on the old Piolsan educational establishment.
Degree Institution Requirements Scintilla School Successful completion of primary school Lumenario College Adequate grades in seven subjects Illustario University Three years of successful university study High Illustario University Four years of successful university study Grand Illustario University Five years of successful university study Subfulgorio University Six years of successful university study Fulgorio University Seven years of successful university study, plus a thesis
The Scintilla is a qualification given to students when they leave primary school (generally at age thirteen). Since primary education is compulsory for all Lendosan children, no adult raised in Lendosa should lack a Scintilla. It is used to give high schools proof that a student has satisfactorily completed primary school, and to give them a general idea of the student's aptitude in Lendian and Mathematics (useful to determine a student's class placement in high school).
The Lumenario is given to students when they leave high school. It contains grades from seven subjects - Lendian, Mathematics, Science, and four other subjects of the student's choosing. The grades are an average of all the years that a student studied that subject. A student must have obtained the Lumenario in order to enter university. It is usually is required for vocational school as well.
The Illustario is given as the basic university qualification. It requires approximately three years of study in one, two, or three subjects (depending on the field that those subjects are in). It is roughly equivalent to a bachelor's degree elsewhere. By increasing the number of years that the subjects are studied, students may obtain a High Illustario (one extra year), a Grand Illustario (two extra years), or a Subfulgorio (three extra years). A student must gain a Subfulgorio in order to begin a Fulgorio thesis (see below).
The Fulgorio is considered to be roughly equal to a PhD in other countries. It is awarded to students who have gained a Subfulgorio (the highest level of Illustario - see above) and who have published a significant and cogent thesis. In order to gain a Fulgorio, a student needs the approval of several other people who already have the degree. These people will also review the thesis submitted by the student, and reject it if it is unsatisfactory. People with the Fulgorio degree are given the title Erudito. The literal meaning of this word is "scholar", but it is usually translated as "doctor" (Dr.), the title given in most countries to those with PhDs.